# Historical Constants

Historical constants are composite values concealing the finer structure of natural units and operators. The elementary form of the constants shows how natural quantities of length, mass, and time play a central role in determining the quantities of physical phenomena.

The New Foundation Model replaces historical constants with natural units of length, mass, and time–and in some cases, with proportionality operators like the rest mass and charge operators. The historical constants are naturally absorbed into this framework and explained in terms of a simple and comprehensive model.

The following constants are stated in elementary and simple forms.

### Gravitational constant

6.67 x 10-11 m3kg-1s-2

elementary

simple

### reduced Planck constant

1.054 571 818 x 10-34 kgm2s-1

elementary

simple

299,792,458 ms-1

elementary

simple

### Fine-structure constant

0.007 297 352 569 3 dimensionless

elementary

### Rydberg constant

10,973,731.568 16 m-1

elementary

### Einstein gravitational constant

2.076 647 x 10-43 s2m-1kg-1

elementary

simple

### Planck charge

5.391 247 x 10-44 s

elementary

### Elementary charge

4.605 448 x 10-45 s

elementary

### Electric constant

7.315 968 x 10-63 s4kgm-3

elementary

simple

### Magnetic constant

1.520 851 x 10-45 kgms-2

elementary

simple

### Coulomb constant

1.087 723 x 1061 kgm3s-4

elementary

simple

### Vacuum impedance

4.559 397 x 1053 kgm2s-3

elementary

simple

### Planck voltage

3.628 253 x 1052 kgm2s-3

elementary

simple

1 dimensionless

elementary

### Planck conductance

2.756 147 x 10-53 s3kg-1m-2

elementary

simple

### Planck impedance

3.628 253 x 1052 kgm2s-3

elementary

simple

### Planck inductance

1.956 081 x 109 kgm2s-2

elementary

simple

### Planck magnetic inductance

7.488 021 x 1078 kgs-2

elementary

### Planck conductance

1.087 723 x 1061 kgm3s-4

elementary

simple

### Planck capacitance

1.485 907 x 10-96 s4kg-1m-2

elementary

simple

### von Klitzing constant

3.124 008 x 1055 kgm2s-3

elementary

simple

### Josephson constant

1.390 100 x 10-11 s2kg-1m-2

elementary

simple

### Magnetic flux constant

7.193 730 x 1010 kgm2s-2

elementary

simple

### Conductance quantum

6.402 033 x 10-56 s3kg-1m-2

elementary

simple

### Bohr magneton

2.665 808 x 10-49 m2

elementary

Historical constants