While the Planck charge represents the maximum charge potential in units of time, the elementary charge quantifies the electric charge of a single proton or electron. This standard unit of charge applies a small operator to the maximum charge potential giving the following natural formula

There is no definitive explanation for the magnitude of the fine-structure constant, but it defines the amount of reduction from the maximum charge potential to the observed level of the elementary charge.

The natural form of the elementary charge is demonstrated in Coulomb’s law.

## Electromagnetic unit conversion

Calculations using the elementary charge in MKS units require a unit conversion from electric charge into time. The following conversion factor translates units of coulomb into seconds.

EM unit | Symbol | Conversion | MKS units |
---|---|---|---|

coulomb | C | 2.874 495 x 10^{-26} | s |

Full table of electromagnetic unit conversions