Operators quantifying the 2-part energy mechanism explain the mechanical properties of elementary particles except for a one-half reduction in the kinetic energy of particles with rest mass. The New Foundation Model offers a physical explanation for this reduction in terms of a particle’s intrinsic spin, where two half-spin rotations complete an oscillation cycle. The ½ reduction in kinetic energy is explained as the dilution of energy across an extended cycle.

The spin operator is defined as ½ for fermions with rest mass, reducing the energy potential by a factor of one-half.

The following illustration represents the reduction in energy potential due to the extended cycle of a half-spin particle