Natural units of length, mass, and time define maximum potentials of observable physical phenomena. Each Planck unit or combination of units has a finite limit at its maximum potential, and an arbitrarily small potential that approaches zero asymptotically. The finite, maximum potential provides a definitive basis for calculating physical properties whereas the asymptotic limit becomes arbitrarily small. By setting the maximum potential equal to one, any unit *distance* from the Planck scale can be quantified as the ratio of one divided by the distance.

Units of length and time are inversely proportional to their potentials, reaching maximum potential at the shortest unit length. Mass units are proportional to mass potential, where the Planck mass is the maximum potential of an individual, elementary particle.

The length unit dimension determines intervals of all three units, which means that a ratio in any one of the three unit dimensions can be used to find corresponding quantities of the other two.

Potentials describe two distinct physical properties of elementary particles: a particle’s spatial distribution in an underlying field, and the rate of displacement through that field. Wavelength and mass quantify the spatial property while velocity and oscillation period quantify the temporal property.

The time unit dimension and maximum time potential also quantify the second derivative of a particle’s position, the rate of change in velocity.

Physical properties and dynamics are* *defined by unique combinations of unit dimensions, giving meaning to the concepts of momentum, energy, acceleration, force, etc. Each of these phenomena has a maximum potential quantified by Planck units in the given dimensions.

## Mechanical potentials

**Length** potential

**1.616 255 x 10 ^{-35}**

*m*

Dimensions: L

**Mass** potential

**2.176 434 x 10 ^{-8}**

*kg*

Dimensions: M

**Time** potential

**5.391 247 x 10 ^{-44}**

*s*

Dimensions: T

**Momentum** potential

**6.524 786** *kgms ^{-1}*

Dimensions: LMT^{-1}

**Energy** potential

**1.956 081 x 10 ^{9}**

*kgm*

^{2}s^{-2}Dimensions: L^{2}MT^{-2}

**Energy** potential (rest mass)

**1.956 081 x 10 ^{9}**

*kgm*

^{2}s^{-2}Dimensions: L^{2}MT^{-2}

**Velocity** potential

**299,792,458** *m*s^{-1}

Dimensions: LT^{-1}

**Acceleration** potential

**5.560 725 x 10 ^{51}**

*ms*

^{-2}Dimensions: LT^{-2}

**Force** potential

**1.210 255 x 10 ^{44}**

*kgms*

^{-2}Dimensions: LMT^{-2}

**Action** potential

**2.176 434 x 10 ^{-8}**

*kg*

Dimensions: L^{2}MT^{-1}

**Length-mass** potential

**3.517 673 x 10 ^{-43}**

*kgm*

Dimensions: LM

## Gravitational potential

**Mass density** potential

7.426 160 x 10^{-28} *mkg ^{-1}*

Dimensions: LM^{-1}

## Electromagnetic potentials

**Charge** potential

**5.391 247 x 10 ^{-44}**

*s*

Dimensions: T

**Voltage** potential

**3.628 253 x 10 ^{52}**

*kgm*

^{2}s^{-3}Dimensions: L^{2}MT^{-3}

**Current** potential

**1** *dimensionless*

Dimensions:** **TT^{-1}

**Capacitance** potential

**1.485 907 x 10 ^{-96}**

*s*

^{4}kg^{-1}m^{-2}Dimensions: T^{4}L^{-2}M^{-1}

**Inductance** potential

**1.956 081 x 10 ^{9}**

*kgm*

^{2}s^{-2}Dimensions:** **L^{2}MT^{-2}

**Magnetic Inductance** potential

**7.488 021 x 10 ^{78}**

*kgs*

^{-2}Dimensions: MT^{-2}

**Conductance** potential

**2.756 147 x 10 ^{-53}**

*s*

^{3}kg^{-1}m^{-2}Dimensions: L^{-2}M^{-1}T^{3}

**Impedance** potential

**3.628 253 x 10 ^{52}**

*kgm*

^{2}s^{-3}Dimensions: L^{2}MT^{-3}